In this research, refractive index or in other words optical density of water ( will be aimed to be identified with the help of parallax method. For the ultrasonic influx passes with an interface among two materials at a good oblique angle, plus the materials have different indices regarding refraction, both reflected in addition to refracted waves are developed.  It might be also told that when any wave strikes the boundary, some of the particular energy is reflected plus some is transmitted or absorbed.  This also occurs along with light, which is the reason why objects seen across an interface appear to be shifted relative to where they really are.
Because, when 2 or 3 dimensional wave travelling in a single medium crosses a boundary into another medium, the particular transmitted wave may move in a different direction compared to the incident wave since shown in the figure below. This phenomenon is recognized as refraction. For example, in the event you look straight down at an object from the bottom of a new glass of water, that looks closer than it really is. Another very good way to visualize exactly how light and sound refract is to shine a new flashlight into a pan of slightly cloudy normal water noting the refraction position with respect to typically the incident angle. Figure: Refraction of wave passing a boundary
Refraction happens at an interface credited to the different velocities of the acoustic waves within the two materials. The speed of sound inside each material is determined by the material attributes like density for that material. In optics, the ration of the speed of light to typically the speed (v) in a material is called the list of refraction which is usually shown with “n”. Echoing index is also understood to be; Snell’s law of refraction describes that when gentle passes from one clear medium into another together with a different index regarding refraction, part of the incident light is reflected on the boundary.
The remaining passes into the particular new medium. If a new ray of light is usually incident at an to be able to the surface, the beam changes direction as this enters the new medium. This change in way or bending is referred to as refraction. Figure: Light refracted passing from air directly into water Figure above exhibits a ray passing through air into water. Viewpoint? 1 may be the angle typically the incident ray makes together with the y-axis which can be verticle with respect to the surface and this angle? 1 is known as the angle of prevalence. Angle? 2 is typically the angle that the refracted beam makes with y-axis and that angle is called position of refraction.
The angle of refraction depends on the rate of light in a couple of media and the incident angle. Snell’s law declares that; (where n: echoing index of the medium) Based on that equation is the angle of prevalence and is the position of refraction. It is obvious from the equation furthermore if than,. This formula of Snell is furthermore referred to as law of refraction. In the experiment, a straight line is drawn in the middle of the particular paper and upside of the line is designated as medium of water and bad thing is marked since medium of air. A new transparent semicircular container is put in the part of the medium of water.
At last tiny needles are sanked into typically the paper as shown inside the figure below plus angles with y-axis are measured. Figure: Mechanism of the experiment In order to find the refractive index of water ( Snell’s law of refraction is used. In the equation refractive index regarding air ( is taken one 00.  By using the particular slope of the best fit line in the particular graph of vs, refractive index of water is usually found out to end up being 1. 331. Maximum associated with refractive index is found 1 ) 400 with the worst brand of maximum incline and minimum value is usually found 1. 251 together with the worst line associated with minimum slope.
Uncertainty of the dimension is 0. 074 with the formula of. Furthermore, in 0th trial angle between y-axis in both medium of water plus air is 0°. That will means the angle in between x-axis is 90°. At this time there is no refraction simply because of the light will be perpendicular to x-axis. Throughout the percentage error calculations literary associated with refractive index of water is used 1. 334 (i. e 4/3).  So the percentage problem is calculated with the formulation of and it is usually found 0. 2 % which is really low mistake. Difference between expected benefit (1.
334) and experimental value (1. 331) is 0. 003. The results of the experiment is not different from the expected value of optical density regarding water. In the chart of vs, the greatest line passes through level “0”, that shows presently there is no systematic problem in the experiment. Within addition, best suit line regarding the graph passes through all error bars, that will shows there is little random error as nicely. Furthermore, there are some limitation which affects the final results of the investigation. Firstly, the number of drinking water in the semicircular box is very important.
The container ought to be full of normal water and there shouldn’t become any empty place in the container. Because that can affect the statement of refraction in drinking water. Thus, adding more normal water to the container in order to make observations better may make the observation even more effective. Another error supply can be the density of the semicircular clear container. In this test refraction of light among two different media is observed. However, wall of the container is one more medium. That’s why, typically the thinner the semicircular box is, the more efficient the results are.
So using a thinner transparent container may be a solution for that limitation. Moreover, using thinner container can be useful for the observer that looks from the method of air to observe the needle. On the grounds that thinner walls of container makes the observations easier for the experimenter by creating a very clear visual material. The temperature of water is an important aspect which affects th effects of the experiment. For that reason, refractive index values are usually determined at standard heat.
A larger temperature means the liqiud becomes less dense in addition to less viscous, causing light to travel faster in the medium. This leads to a smaller value with regard to the refractive index as a consequence to a smaller ration. A lower temperature means the liquid becomes denser and has a higher viscosity, causing light to travel slower in the moderate. This results in a new larger value for the particular refractive index because of a greater ratio. In addition, refractometers which are laboratory or field devices for typically the measurement of the index regarding refraction normally takes measurement regarding standard temperature (298. 15K/25°C).
That’s the reason why, making experiment at common temperature gives better effects. Moreover, refractive index regarding vacuum which is the measurement of standard temperature is taken used during the calculations. Therefore, in the course of the experiment making time for typically the temperature and trying to be able to constant at 25°C the actual results better. Another constraint is the thickness associated with the needles. Using thicker needles can be misleading for the results of the particular experiment by affecting observations of refraction. So, leaner needles can solve of which error source.