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How to write a research paper on biology

In modern conditions there are high requirements not only to the level of knowledge of graduates, but also to the ability to work independently. Due to the reduction in the number of hours devoted to the study of biology, there is a decrease in the level of formation of activity competence of schoolchildren. The focus of education on the delivery of graduates of the exam, unfortunately, only reinforces this trend. In this regard, the relevance of the use of research methods in the biological education of schoolchildren no one doubts.

Conducting research on the nature of the native land is an effective form of educational work with children.

Research activity is an effective way to enhance cognitive activity and is the most promising for the development of the individual, as it promotes creative development, teaches students to work with literature, the media and the Internet, thereby developing a critical approach to school sources of information, shows the importance of theoretical research for practice. Emerging research skills contribute to the development of students ‘ personal qualities such as observation, attentiveness, independence, respect for nature, develop communication skills. Children develop a sense of belonging to the concerns of their native land and responsibility for its well-being.

For carrying out research, such objects and phenomena are selected, which most typically and vividly reflect the essential aspects of the local natural conditions, available for research. The main thing is that they meet the interests of students, their age, individual and intellectual capabilities.

In the course of research activities to study the nature of the native land, students cooperate with various organizations. Environmental expeditions to interesting places of the native land are of great interest to students.

Research activities of schoolchildren are activities related to the implementation of a creative task with a previously unknown solution and assuming the presence of the main stages characteristic of research in the scientific sphere. [12].

The system of work on the development of research skills of students includes the following components: the choice of research topics–>scientific guidance topic–>work with scientific literature–>selection and development of research methods–>research work –>design work–>protection of research work [5].

One of the features of students ‘ research activity is the principle of activity approach, which is embodied, first of all, through independent work of students. This takes into account the age and psychological capabilities of students [15]. The role of the supervisor is leadership.

On the basis of the literature I have developed guidelines for teachers on the organization and conduct of research by students, which reflects the sequence of stages of the study:

Search problems, the choice of the research topic.

Often, students do not have any idea about the topics of research; some have a desire to copy someone else’s already finished work. Here it is necessary to achieve a conscious choice of the topic of future research.

There are two criteria to consider when choosing a topic:

1. Subjective-the topic should meet the interests of the researcher;

2. Objective:

a) the topic should be relevant

b) the theme should be feasible [6].

Setting goals and objectives.

Clearly and competently formulated goal of the work is a short answer to the questions: why the study is conducted and what exactly the author wants to find out after the completion of the whole work [16]. The purpose of the work follows from the proposed topic, and the tasks correspond to the formulated goal. The goal is much broader than the task. There can be several tasks, they are always specific, include all the essential details that require permission in the process [17].

Select the object of study.

The objects of bioecological research to study the nature of the native land are living systems (organism, population, ecosystem) or phenomena (mechanisms of action of any factors, various processes), which are studied by the researcher. Objects of research should be accessible and not dangerous for life and health of the researcher [18]. They should be typical for the area, and their choice should meet the challenges. The study of biological objects should always begin with the establishment of their systematic position.

Familiarity with literature.

It is very difficult to conduct an interesting study without serious theoretical training. So work with literature is a necessary component of research [16]. The study of literature on the topic-a prerequisite for the success of the study. Literary review allows students to get acquainted with the state of the problem, with what has been done in this area to date.

Significant problems arise already at the stage of the initial search for information. Therefore, the work on the preparation of the literature review should begin with the rules of use of the Internet and the library. In the future, this saves a significant amount of time [7]. A lot of problems arise with the creative processing of information during the study of literature.

Putting forward a working hypothesis.

A working hypothesis is a predictable, verifiable, and logical scientific assumption about a phenomenon. Putting forward a working hypothesis, the researcher can on its basis in advance with a certain probability to predict and explain the results. In other words, to formulate a hypothesis means to determine the expected result.

The choice and development of methods of collecting material – “tool”, through which the tasks will be solved.

The principles that should guide the choice of research methods:

* compliance with goals and objectives;

• standardness;

• performance;

• simplicity of application;

* availability of necessary equipment;

* scientific validity [16].

Research and processing of the obtained materials.

The main documentation of the study (report) is preceded by the primary documentation, which includes the diary of the study. This notebook (notebook), preferably in a hard cover, easy to carry in your pocket. The diary should contain all the initial information about the study: the topic, purpose, objectives, working hypothesis, deadlines and research program. In order to carry out the study in the diary record all the work on the tab, the organization and conduct of the study, specifying the volume and quality of the work done, the tools used, etc. In field studies in the diary usually record meteorological conditions for living organisms-the defeat of diseases and pests, record the current results of data processing, preliminary findings and assumptions about the validity of the working hypothesis.

Analysis of the results, their comparison with the literature data, comparison of the hypothesis with the data, etc. [6].

In order to be able to compare and analyse the results, they need to be brought to a common criterion. The results are statistically processed. On the basis of the obtained data, tables are compiled, charts, graphs, histograms are built, which gives the results more visibility and facilitates their perception and understanding. Each stage of the analysis of the results ends with the formulation of the conclusion. The researcher compares the obtained conclusions with the working hypothesis and, depending on the result, accepts or rejects it.

Making the results of the study.

When writing a report on the work done, the results of the study should be presented strictly and clearly. The main requirements for the report – awareness, consistency and availability of presentation. In parallel, such computer programs as Word, Excel, Power Point should be mastered.

Publication of results (presentation).

Upon completion of the work, the researcher presents its results to the audience in the form of a report, defense of the work, interview, etc.for this purpose, the researcher prepares an oral report lasting 10-15 minutes, which briefly covers the main content of the work: the theme, purpose and objectives, object, methods, results, conclusions and main literary sources. The text of the speech is made not only in accordance with the requirements of completeness and consistency of the content, but also the effectiveness of the submission. The beginning should be interesting, attract attention. For these purposes, a speech usually begins with a quote, an example from life or a question. To make the audience better perceive the report, it is necessary to prepare illustrative material: posters, slides, computer presentation. For demonstration you can use optional materials: soil samples, insect collections, herbaria, etc. No less than spectacular start, the report needs a meaningful conclusion.

On the basis of the above, I have compiled a memo reflecting the sequence of stages of research.

Sequence of stages of research work

Stage 1. Search problems, the choice of the research topic.

Stage 2. Setting goals and objectives.

Stage 3. Select the object of study.

Stage 4. Familiarity with literature.

Stage 5. Putting forward a working hypothesis.

Stage 6. Selection and development of methods of collecting material.

Stage 7. Research and processing of the obtained materials.

Stage 8. Analysis of the results.

Stage 9. Making the results of the study.

Stage 10. Publication of results (presentation).

When writing a work requires clarity, consistency and consistency of presentation. The text should be divided into paragraphs according to the sense. It is necessary to avoid repetition, to prevent the transition to a new thought, until the first is completed. Writing should be concise and clear sentences, to avoid tautology, the frequent repetition of the same words and expressions, the combination in one phrase of a few whistling and hissing letters. The supporting material should be included in the Annex.
Special attention should be paid to the description of the structure of the research work.
Structure and rules of execution of the research report
1. Title page.
The following information is placed on the title page from top to bottom: the name of the organization in which the work was carried out (written along the top of the sheet); the name of the work (written in the middle of the sheet); the author’s name (written below the title), class; the name of the scientific supervisor, his position (written below the author’s name), locality and year of work (at the bottom of the sheet).
2. Content.
It includes the numbers and titles of chapters, paragraphs and pages where they begin.
3. Introduction
The introduction may emphasize the relevance of the topic, describes the features of the object of study, characterized by the General state of the problem at the time of the study, but the main thing in this part is the purpose and main objectives of the work.
4. Literature review on the research topic
This Chapter provides a retrospective analysis of the literature sources studied by the researcher. The information given in the literature review is accompanied by references to the primary sources. Usually it is the surname of the author placed in brackets with year of its publication or the figure specified in square brackets designating number of the literary source from the list of literature.
5. The methodology of the study
This section describes the methods used to collect the material. Research methods should be stated briefly, indicating the literature; if the method is the author’s or little known,
it should be described in more detail.
6. Research result
This Chapter usually begins with a brief presentation of the volume of material collected. This is followed by the presentation of the data in “standardized” figures and facts. When discussing the results, it is important to answer not only the question “what?”but also the question” why?”[16]. Verbal description of the results should be provided with links to illustrative material given in the report (photos, diagrams, graphs, etc.).)
7. Summary
The conclusions should correspond only to the material presented in the work and correspond to the tasks set at the beginning of the study.
8. Conclusion
Generalization of the most significant provisions of the work, summarizing its results. The prospects of the research are reflected. In conclusion, you can put specific practical recommendations. In addition, in conclusion, it is desirable to report on their plans for further work in this direction.
9. List of references.
The list of references includes a single list of literary sources (articles, monographs, abstracts, etc.) used at all stages of research. The list should include all literary sources that the author refers to in his work. The basic principle of placing information about publications in the bibliography is alphabetical. In publications in Russian first the names of Russian works are placed, then-foreign [2].
10. Applications.
This section includes: auxiliary tables, graphs, additional text, etc.all tables, charts, graphs, diagrams, photos should be numbered, and for tables numbering is carried out separately. Each application should start with a new page.
The experience of research work has shown that the conducted research develops students mentally and physically, give children a lot of useful information, joyful experiences, increase their interest in learning the secrets of nature, facilitate the assimilation of educational material and the passage of the school program. They develop attentiveness, patience, endurance, diligence, ability to be surprised.
Research activity allows to identify and develop both intellectual and potential creative abilities of children. Conducting research stimulates the thought process aimed at finding and solving the problem, requires the involvement of knowledge from different fields for these purposes. Students learn to determine the goals of cognitive activity, to choose the necessary sources of information, to evaluate the results, to organize their activities, to cooperate with other students.
The use of research activities in the educational process allows to strengthen the individualization of learning. It allows to solve such problems as further development of students ‘ communicative and organizational skills; readiness for information competence.

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