In order to write a school research (scientific) work in English, it is necessary to properly dispose of time. It is necessary to have in stock six months to conduct the actual study, as well as to have time to collect experimental material and reflect on it. Below I will describe the logic of the research paper, which is firmly established in the Western academic tradition. Why the West-authority? Probably because it has quietly shown over a long period how best to create an academic text so that the reader/consumer understands it as much as possible.
Preface. Postulates to be taken for granted
There are things to agree with initially if you want to write a good work.
One, this is your job. This means that it is ungodly to rip off from the Internet tidbits of text-taboo, to expect that someone else will write the text for you-taboo, that someone in principle will generate ideas instead of you – taboo. The use of other people’s ideas, the text without quoting is a crime from which in the West it is impossible to wash your hands until the end of days.
Second, if you want the work to be accepted, understood and evaluated, it must have a clear structure, contain references to books or scientific (!) articles by authors who have previously dealt with the topic on which you write the work. For example, a blog or Wikipedia are not scientific publication, but the magazine “Zamezhnaya language society ¡Respublica Belarus” — is a textbook in English or the translation may be (depends, but to quote the books in the West is considered to be frivolous).
Third: the purpose of research should not be a prize in the competition, otherwise it is a false value. Ie a prize to get nice and worth it, but if not – this is not a reason for frustration or failure from research.
Part 1. What is the research work?
Research paper is a text in which the author of the study shows that he was engaged in a certain topic (part of it), studied the material and came to some conclusions that may have (applied/theoretical) value. The volume of work has no fixed number of words: it can be 2500 words (5 pages A4, 12 Times New Roman), can be 5000 words (10 pages), and can be 7500 words (15 pages). The list of sources has no upper limits, but the lower limit is usually 5 sources (at least three of them are scientific). For other types of academic essays (reaction paper, response paper, position paper) or for writing essays on the TOEFL exam there may be their requirements for academic writing, but I don’t address these topics here.
Part 2. Structure of research
The structure of the research work is very simple:
1. Title-the original title should catch the attention, as well as be clear to the public.
*2. Abstract-short (up to 250 words) and well-written abstract of the work, can also contain keywords.
*3. Acknowledgements-words of gratitude to anyone, if these someone helped you to write a work (moral or financial support, for example).
4. Introduction-an introduction to the work, a brief introduction to the reader with how you came to this topic and why.
*5. Theoretical framework (and Literature overview) – a theoretical framework (and sometimes a literature review) – is how you position yourself and your research among the works of other researchers who have already dealt with this topic (and there are always such!). A theoretical framework is a reference to a theory developed by some scientist that you apply to your research and verify whether it works or not.
6. Methodology is the way you’ve done your research; the way you’ve come to conclusions in your work. The methodology is varied: it can be quantitative methods (e.g., questionnaire or statistics calculation) or qualitative methods (e.g., interviews, included observation, Ethnography, discourse analysis-usually for written texts). By the way, I’ve never seen a sensible list of research methods. But this is a very important component of the work. By describing how you got to your conclusions, you show the reader whether he or she believes you or not. For example, you can explore the translations of movie titles on Russian language. In the methodology, it is important to specify how many movie titles you have chosen, how many of them had different translation options, etc.
7. Body of the research – the main part of the study, which is divided into parts – sections and subsections (sections and subsections). You decide how you will structure your work, what titles you will choose for your sections, and how balanced the number of words will be in each of the sections.
8. Conclusion – the main conclusions of the study (rephrased!) and the answer to the question ” and then what?”, i.e. why it should concern other researchers of this topic.
Part 3. The logic of the introduction and conclusion
In the introduction, the author introduces the reader to a topic he explores and narrows it down to a specific problem. The introduction clearly spelled out the research question to which the answer is sought, as well as the main argument, or thesis of the work. For example, you are interested in the topic of headlines in English periodicals. But this is a wide field of activity. For example, you may be interested in ways to create/write headings, especially the vocabulary in the headings or especially the translation of English headings into Russian. Let’s say you have chosen the last sub – topic-translation of newspaper headlines. In the introduction, it is necessary to specify what topic and sub-topic you are interested in, why you came to it and how and what you want to explore. The latter is expressed in a research question. For example, it could be: “How are British newspaper heads translated into Russian?”Sometimes this question is attributed to a number of auxiliary sub-questions (what is the structure of English newspaper heads? What is the structure of Russian newspaper heads? etc.). The thesis / argument itself should be an answer to the research question. In our case, it can be, for example, as follows: “English newspaper heads should never be translated word-by-word into Russian, because they are different from Russian newspaper heads in spelling, length, grammar, and focus”. In Western tradition, it is accepted that the argument / thesis is at the beginning of the text. A good thesis is usually one that can be argued with. Usually words like” should (not) ” turn almost any sentence into a good thesis.
Also in the introduction briefly describes the structure of the work: “Following the introduction, the body of the research paper will focus on the specificities of newspaper headings in English and in Russian as well as on the translation techniques that can be used in rendering English newspaper headings into English. In the conclusion, I will answer the research question and discus the implications of my findings.”If you doubt whether you can use’ I ‘in an academic text (instead of ‘we’), the answer is Yes. The logic of the introduction is that we lead the reader by the hand on our work and tell him what awaits him next.
Conclusion in large academic papers (such as dissertations) is usually a reflection of the introduction. A paraphrased summary of your major scientific research. For research, this is not always the case. The conclusion can summarize the content in 2-3 sentences, repost in other words your argument / thesis (the culmination of the conclusion), and then answer the main question of the whole work: “So what?”Roughly speaking, and then what? What can I do with your findings? How can they be developed further?
Part 4. The logic of the main part of the work
Each section in the body of the paper should contain one big thought, which in turn should serve as a support for your argument/thesis. For example, if you are engaged in the peculiarities of translation of English newspaper headings into Russian, you can write it in three sections: (1) The structure of English newspaper heads, (2) the structure of Russian newspaper heads, (3) the ways of translating English newspaper heads into Russian.
Sections can have subsections (they can also have their own names). For example, the first section can be thought of in more detail: (a) English titles are short, (b) English titles use “incomplete” grammar, (C) English titles cling and/or shock the reader, (d) English titles are rhythmic. And so on with the other two sections.
Part 5. The logic of the paragraph
Let’s say we decided to write the first section of the main part of our work. Need to remember one thing: every paragraph (persistent. paragraph) should have only one idea, which confirms the main idea of this section. Paragraphs should be ideologically linked. Each paragraph is also built on its own small structure (which copies the overall structure of the work): the first sentence is the key one and says what the author is trying to say in this paragraph. In an ideal academic text, the reader should be able to read only the first sentences of each paragraph to understand what is said in this section and, accordingly, what all the research work is written about. The first sentence of a paragraph is the essence of the whole paragraph, everything else is support for that idea and analysis (the hardest part, in my opinion).
For example, we are studying translations of English headings and for the first section we decided to write 6 paragraphs: 1 – introductory, 2 – on the brevity of English headings, 3 – on the “curve” of English headings grammar, 4 – on the special function of English headings, 5 – on the rhythm of English headings, 6 – final and summarizing paragraph in this section. Let’s see how we can, for example, schematically sketch the second paragraph (№2 – on brevity).
The first sentence should be thematic, for example: “Newspaper headings in English periodicals are very concise and crisp.”This is so – called our small argument, which we will expand further. And then we need to provide evidence (evidence) that this is so. Here, it is desirable to use references to other authors who dealt with this topic. You can use your research, for example (again, it’s from Baldy): “According to a Russian linguist Fyodorov, newspaper heads in English tend to be between 4 and 9 words, and if a journalist needs more words, he or she trends to use subheadings (Fyodorov, 1956, p. 87). In the 15 articles that I analyzed on the BBC website in the section ‘Science,’ most heads had a maximum of 6 words.”That is, we have provided evidence to support our thesis in the first sentence. But this testimony itself says nothing. As they say, well, then what? Yeah, well, you’ve noticed the headlines are short, but why is that important? Why is it important for translation into Russian, if your work is about translation of headlines into Russian? And here it is necessary to continue to write your analysis – analysis) – what it means for the big picture or for the universe. This part is completely the author’s thoughts, i.e. yours. The analysis is yours, and that’s the value of the work: you share what your brain has produced. In this case, you can write, for example, the following: “This suggestions that the attention of readers can be much more easily grasped by fewer words—as few as an eye can catch without any movements. The shorter the word, the more likely a reader will notice the article and eventually read it through. Short heads allow journalists to win their readers.”In principle, it looks like an analysis. I.e. what follows after we notice something special.
And then the next paragraph, the next subtheme. Of course, it is necessary to enter paragraphs reasonably, cautiously, they too have to be as though interconnected among themselves and confirm the main idea of the section. It is necessary to correctly use transition words (therefore, consequently, first, second, third, in addition, also, furthermore, etc.). The reader must sail with us through our text. You should always think about the reader of our work, even if it is only our teacher.
Schematically, the logic of the academic text can be represented in the following diagram (see picture). This ideal, of course.