Education of schoolchildren with special knowledge, as well as the development of their General skills necessary for research is one of the main practical tasks of modern education.
General research skills are: the ability to see problems; ask questions; put forward hypotheses; define concepts; classify; the ability and skills of observation; conducting experiments; the ability to draw conclusions and conclusions; the ability and skills of structuring the material; working with the text; the ability to prove and defend their ideas.
The logic of each study is specific. The researcher proceeds from the nature of the problem, goals and objectives of the work, the specific material he has, the level of equipment of the study and its capabilities. Let us turn to the main categories of research and analyze the approximate algorithm for the development of research programs.
The problem of research as a category offers the study of the unknown in science, which is to be discovered, proved, studied from new positions. The problem is difficulty, uncertainty. To solve the problem, actions are required, first of all-these are actions aimed at studying everything that is connected with this problem situation. Finding problems is not easy. Finding a problem is often harder and more instructive than solving it. Performing this part of the research work with the child, you should be flexible and do not necessarily require a clear understanding and formulation of the problem, a clear designation of the goal. Satisfied with her total, the approximate characteristics.
The ability to see problems is an integral property that characterizes human thinking.
One of the most important properties in identifying problems is the ability to change your own point of view, to look at the object of study from different angles. After all, if you look at the same object from different points of view, you will definitely see what eludes the traditional view and is often not seen by others.
The theme reflects the problem in its characteristics. Successful, precise in semantic respect, the formulation of the topic clarifies the problem, outlines the scope of the study, specifies the main idea, thereby creating the prerequisites for the success of the work as a whole.
Rules for the selection of the topic
* The theme should be interesting to the child, should captivate him.
* The theme should be feasible, its solution should bring real benefit to the participants of the study.
• The theme must be original, it has the element of surprise, unusual.
* The theme should be such that the work can be done relatively quickly.
* As you help the student choose a topic, try to stay close to the area where you feel gifted.
* The teacher should also feel like a researcher.
When starting to work on a topic, it is very important to have its plan, at least in the most General form. It will help the student to find, collect, amass the primary sources on the topic. As the study and initial familiarization with the literature adopted plan, of course, will be modified. However, the indicative plan will make it possible to link together a variety of information. Therefore, this plan should be as early as possible, and in his compilation of invaluable assistance to the supervisor of studies.
The relevance of the chosen topic justifies the need for research.
The object of research is an area in which the study of a set of relationships, relationships and properties as a source of necessary information for the researcher.
The subject of research is more specific and includes only those connections and relations which are subject to direct studying in this work, it establishes borders of scientific search in each object. The subject is always studied within an object.
In order not to evade the chosen topic, it is necessary to clearly and accurately imagine the purpose and objectives of the study. Their definition will allow the student to collect material more economically and with greater determination and process it.
The purpose is formulated briefly and very accurately, meaningfully expressing what the researcher intends to do. As a rule, the goal begins with the verbs: “find out”, “reveal”, “form”, “justify”, “conduct”, etc.
The goal is concretized and developed in the research tasks. The problems indicate a set of problems that need to be solved during the experiment. Tasks can reflect a certain step-by-step achievement of the purpose, sequence of actions. The solution of the problem allows to pass a certain stage of research. The formulation of the problems is closely related to the structure of the study, and individual problems can be set for both theoretical (review of the literature on the problem) and experimental part of the study. Tasks determine the content of the study and the structure of the text.
The hypothesis of the study is a detailed assumption that details the model, methodology, system of measures, that is, the technology of the innovation, as a result of which the goal of the study is expected to be achieved. There can be several hypotheses – some of them will be confirmed, some will not. As a rule, the hypothesis is formulated in the form of a complex sentence (“If…, then…” or “What…, the…”). Making assumptions, commonly used words: maybe, suppose, for example, it is possible that if, I guess. During the experiment, the hypothesis is refined, supplemented, developed or rejected.
Hypothesis – is the basis, assumption, judgment of the natural connection of phenomena. Children often Express a variety of hypotheses about what they see, hear, feel. Many interesting hypotheses are born as a result of trying to find answers to their own questions. A hypothesis is a prediction of events. Initially, the hypothesis is not true or false – it is simply not defined. Once it is confirmed, it becomes a theory, if it is refuted, it also ceases to exist, turning from a hypothesis into a false assumption.
The first thing that makes a hypothesis appear is a problem. Methods of testing hypotheses are usually divided into two large groups: theoretical and empirical. The first involves reliance on logic and analysis of other theories (available knowledge) within which this hypothesis is put forward. Empirical methods for testing hypotheses involve observations and experiments.
Building hypotheses-the basis of research, creative thinking. Hypotheses allow to open, and then during the theoretical analysis of thought or actual experiments to estimate probabilities. Thus, hypotheses provide an opportunity to see the problem in a different light, to look at the situation from the other side.
The choice of specific methods and research methods is determined primarily by the nature of the object of study, the subject, purpose and objectives of the study. The technique is a set of techniques, methods of research, the order of their application and the type of interpretation of the results obtained with their help. In other words, the methods of scientific research is a way of studying the objects of research.
1. Methods aimed at the theoretical study of the problem, such as the study of literary sources, written, archival materials;
2. Methods that provide practical results of the study of the problem: observation, conversation, questioning.
Research methods provide greater accuracy and depth of study of the selected problem, provide a solution to the problems.
An essential component of the program is to establish the time frame of the study. The time frame should be sufficient to verify the reproducibility, reliability and stability of the results, their discussion and testing.
The main stages of the study:
* The first stage – preparatory-includes the selection of the problem and the topic, the definition and preparation of the object and subject, the development of goals and objectives, hypotheses of research, preparation of tools, training of research participants, the choice of methods and development of research methods.
• The second stage – building (staging, create) – contains a study (divided into phases).
* The third stage is corrective: the formulation of preliminary conclusions, their testing and clarification.
* The fourth stage – control.
* Fifth-final – summing up and presentation of results.
Tasks, terms and plan of the research should correspond to the object, subject and purpose chosen for the research.
Equally important is the ability to present the results of their research in public, here are a few models of research protection:
The oral presentation focuses on fundamental issues:
1. research topic and its relevance;
2. the range of sources used and the main scientific moves to the problem;
3. the novelty of the work (the study of little-known sources, the movement of the new version, new approaches to solving problems, etc.));
4. the main conclusions on the content of the abstract.
Personal aspects of work on the abstract are revealed:
1. rationale for choosing the topic of the abstract;
2. methods of work on the abstract;
3. the original findings, their own judgments, the interesting points;
4. personal significance of the work done;
5. prospects for further research.
III “Creative” protection involves:
1. design of the stand with documentary and illustrative material on the research topic, their comments;
2. demonstration of slides, videos, listening to audio recordings prepared in the process of abstracting;
3. bright, original presentation of the fragment of the main part of the abstract, etc.
Human life is a movement along the path of knowledge. Each step enriches us if, through new experiences, we begin to see things that we have not previously noticed and understood. But the questions to the world – especially the questions to yourself. It is important that in the process of organizing the research activities of students, the situation of pre-set uncertainty is preserved, so that the whole system of interaction of participants in the educational process begins to build in a very special way.